Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador
Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador


The Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador website is a work-in-progress and new information will be added periodically. In its completed version, the website will include the following elements:

  • The Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador (S.J. Meades and L. Brouillet 2018).
  • Descriptions of native and noteworthy introduced NL species, with digital images of habitats and close-ups of diagnostic features.
  • Identification Keys and Comparison Charts for all NL vascular plant species, available for downloading as PDF files.
  • An Illustrated Glossary of terminology used in the descriptions and keys.
  • A Photo Gallery of wildflower species not yet described.
  • When available, checklist updates and additions to the website will be listed in a link at the top of the homepage.

Brief History of the Project

In the Spring of 2013, the authors were approached by the Centre for Forest Science and Innovation (CFSI), Govt. of Newfoundland and Labrador, to develop a Flora for the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador; a 'rebirth' (of sorts) of a native flora project initiated by Susan Meades in the early 1990s. With generous funding from CFSI and in-kind support from the Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Canada (CFS-AC), the initial phase resulted in the online publication in 2015 of the Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador (S.J. Meades et al. 2013). The 2013 version of the checklist updated and replaced the previous vascular plant checklist for NL (S.J. Meades et al. 2000), and was presented in PDF format on a website (no longer available) developed by the CFS-AC in Corner Brook.

In mid 2018, it was decided that Susan Meades would take over development of a new website for the Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador. Mirämar Design Studio, Inc., under the capable direction of Steve Morassut and talented web developers Richard Laliberte and Dave Hunter, was hired for the design and programming work on the website. The current checklist (S.J. Meades and L. Brouillet 2018) is presented here in a searchable web format and includes all vascular plant species known to occur in Newfoundland and Labrador. Species that are excluded (based on misidentifications or reporting errors) or species that are ephemeral or occur only in cultivation are listed in an Appendix, downloadable as a PDF. Bibliographic references mentioned in the checklist are also available in PDF format. The 2018 version of the NL Checklist updates the nomenclature and supersedes all previous versions.

While this project has received no financial support since 2015, the authors are committed to completing the Flora, which will provide the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador with an effective resource for showcasing the beauty of the province's flora, assist in teaching students how to accurately identify our floral resources, provide information to resource managers on described vegetation communities, and prompt future botanists to continue adding to our knowledge of the flora of Canada's easternmost province. For additional information on the Checklist and an explanation of the abbreviations employed, please read the PDF: Introduction to the Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Requests about potential sponsorship or partnerships can be addressed to Susan Meades (sjmeades[at]sympatico.ca).


About the Authors

sue and bill
Photo credit: Ted Hedderson

Susan J. Meades and William J. Meades met at the University of Connecticut (UCONN) in the late 1970s, where Sue studied Plant Systematics with Dr. Greg Anderson, while Bill received his Ph.D. in Plant Ecology under the mentorship of Dr. A.W.H. (Ton) Damman. Ton had worked for the Canadian Forest Service (CFS) in Newfoundland in the 1950-60s and described many of the forest types of insular Newfoundland, as well as developing the Ecoregions of Newfoundland (Damman 1983). The excellent education received at UCONN by the authors provided a sound basis for their future research in Newfoundland and Labrador.

Bill continued work as a researcher at the Canadian Forest Service in St. John's, NL, then moved into management as a Director in 1992, while Sue worked with various consulting firms as a field botanist, including Northland Associates, AMEC, Jacques-Whitford, and Stassinu Stantec. Bill's major research included phytosociological descriptions of Newfoundland's heathlands and forests (1973, 1983, 1986) and publication of the Forest Site Classification Manual – A Field Guide to the Damman Forest Types in Newfoundland (W.J. Meades and Moore 1989) and the Ecoregions of Labrador (1989). As a botanical consultant, Sue described the vegetation of peatlands across Newfoundland and conducting various rare plant surveys in Labrador. Sue was a founding member and past president of the Wildflower Society of Newfoundland and Labrador, wrote the Natural Regions of Newfoundland and Labrador (1990), and lobbied for the establishment of Burnt Cape Ecological Reserve, where she oversaw the rehabilitation work in 1998. Also a botanical illustrator, Sue provided illustrations for the Forest Site Classification Manual (W.J. Meades and Moore 1989) and Indicator Plant Species in Canadian Forests (Ringius & Sims 1998).

The downsizing of the CFS in 1995 saw their move from Flatrock, NL, to Sault Ste. Marie, ON, where Bill worked at Great Lakes Forestry Centre as the Director of Forest Ecology until his retirement in 2009. Sue was the primary author of the Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador (S.J. Meades et al. 2000, 2015), and worked as an adjunct professor at Algoma University for 11 years, where she developed the Northern Ontario Plant Database website (S.J. Meades et al. 2004) and continued doing fieldwork in Newfoundland and Labrador. While Northern Ontario has been a wonderful place to live, work, and raise their family, Newfoundland will always be 'home' to Sue and Bill.